Treatment of osteoporosis is carried out with the participation of natural methods and pharmacotherapy. Adequate nutrition can affect the onerous symptoms of osteoporosis. The diet should abound in the rich calcium products necessary to maintain normal bone density. Preparations for non-prescription osteoporosis help stop the progression of the disease and support its prevention. Prescription osteoporosis drugs are available, among others in the form of injections.
What is the treatment of osteoporosis?
Treatment of osteoporosis is aimed at minimizing the fractures to which the sufferer suffering from this disease is greatly affected. Therapy consists of two parts – non-pharmacological treatment and the use of appropriately selected drugs for osteoporosis.
In the natural treatment of osteoporosis the most important is a proper diet and a specific lifestyle, reducing the risk of complications. Pharmacological treatment aims to fill gaps in bone building components, stimulate bone cells to produce matrix and protect them from degradation. The most important element of combating osteoporosis is the action preventing its development, that is a set of recommendations being the basis for preventing the health-related complications of this disease.
Changing lifestyle is the most important factor in reducing the symptoms of osteoporosis. A diet containing elements essential for proper bone structure can significantly reduce the risk of complications.
Osteoporosis – a diet rich in calcium
Treatment of osteoporosis with diet is based largely on the adequate supply of calcium – the demand for this element increases with age. In an adult, it is 1000 mg / day and in pregnant women, breastfeeding women, post-menopausal women and elderly people 1500 mg / day. If there is a deficiency of calcium in the body (hypocalcaemia) it is released from the bones, which can lead to osteoporosis.
One should consume in a daily diet products rich in calcium, the source of which is milk, cottage cheese or kefir. The diet for osteoporosis should also include walnuts, spinach, brussels sprouts, cabbage and legumes. It is worth knowing that daily calcium needs cover 3 glasses of milk, 6 slices of yellow cheese, 4 yogurts or a kilogram of white cheese. Many products, eg fruit juices, are enriched with calcium.
To make treatment of the disease more effective from the diet of osteoporosis diet should be eliminated foods that limit the absorption of calcium. They include spinach, vegetables containing oxalates, wheat bran (eaten in large quantities), as well as tea.
It is important that the protein deficiency in the food causes calcium absorption disorders. This leads to increased bone loss and to the weakening of our muscles, which in turn causes numerous falls. However, it should be remembered that excessive protein intake in the diet increases the excretion of calcium in the urine. The drug for osteoporosis is therefore moderation and “golden mean”.
Osteoporosis – natural treatment
A natural way to treat osteoporosis is also to maintain normal levels of vitamin D in the body. This is due to the fact that it determines the absorption of calcium in the gastrointestinal tract and its excretion through the kidneys. The source of vitamin D (the so-called endogenous vitamin D) is its production in the skin under the influence of sunlight. That’s why it’s so important to stay in the sun two to three times a week for twenty minutes. We do not need to tan the whole body. It is enough if we reveal the forearms, neck and a little cleavage, and our body will produce the needed vitamin itself. In the autumn and winter months, when the weather does not allow for frequent walks, an alternative to the elderly is to provide this vitamin with food. This vitamin will be taken by eating fish (eg herring or mackerel), milk, egg yolk and cheese.
It has been shown that reducing the production of endogenous vitamin D and increasing the excretion of calcium in the urine causes smoking. Similarly, drinking more than three cups of coffee a day deprives us of this macroelement, so to mitigate the symptoms of osteoporosis, this drink should be reduced. Interesting is the fact that drinking small amounts of alcohol by menopausal women may increase the production of positively acting on the bone estrogen. In turn, too much drunk drinks (more than 2 drinks a day) have a very negative effect on the liver, which also actively participates in the production of vitamin D.
It should be remembered that the condition of the bones is also adversely affected by the sedentary lifestyle. They adjust their mass and structure to the loads we apply to them, and the lack of this load weakens their structure. Therefore, space-saving astronauts suffer from numerous problems with the skeletal system, returning to the Earth, where gravity interacts with them. Therefore, to strengthen the bones, do not forget about regular movement.
Drugs for osteoporosis and side effects
If we are unable to provide the right amount of calcium and vitamin D in the diet, we should supplement them in the form of special preparations available without a prescription.
The most calcium is contained in the form of calcium carbonate. It is taken orally with meals. Side effects may include bloating, constipation and diarrhea.
Vitamin D – so-called cholekalcyfelor or its synthetic analogues are mainly taken in the winter months. In the summer, the preparation is discontinued or the dose reduced by half, depending on the exposure to solar radiation. Adverse reactions result from overdose of vitamin D and, consequently, excessive absorption of calcium by the body. Excess calcium in the body leads to calcifications, kidney damage, and in extreme cases can cause a life-threatening hypercalcemic crisis.
Non-prescription osteoporosis is also used for bisphosphonates – phosphorus compounds that build into the bone, thus increasing its density. These preparations include alendronate and risedronate.
They should be taken on an empty stomach, washed down with water, swallowed whole. These types of tablets for osteoporosis should not be chewed or sucked. Side effects include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, irritation of the esophagus, constipation and diarrhea. In order to avoid this type of ailments, it is recommended to stay after swallowing the preparation for about 30 minutes. in a sitting position. There may also be muscle, bone and joint pains.
Tablets and injections for osteoporosis
The form of available drugs for osteoporosis varies. Their choice depends on the severity of the disease and the nature of the symptoms.
- Strontium ranelate – a drug that stimulates bone formation and reduces its resorption. When taken orally along with calcium and vitamin D, it reduces the risk of vertebral and other bone fractures. Side effects include diarrhea. It is available in the form of granules for suspension.
- Teriparatide – stimulates bone formation and increases the absorption of calcium in the intestines. It is the most effective drug for prescription osteoporosis. It is mainly addressed to people suffering from severe form with numerous fractures, when it is impossible to take or ineffective therapy with other preparations. It reduces the risk of fractures. It is taken in the form of subcutaneous injections. It causes side effects such as: pain in the limbs, headaches and dizziness, nausea and vomiting, depression.
- Salmon calcitonin – a nasal osteoporosis drug that inhibits bone resorption. It is mainly used in fresh fractures, due to its strong analgesic effect.
- Raloxifene – a component of osteoporosis tablets that exhibits different effects depending on the tissue in which it is found. In bones, it stimulates the estrogen receptor, thanks to which it protects them and helps in the reconstruction. In the mammary gland and mucous membrane endometrium inhibits the estrogen receptor. This medicine has been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer, which is why it can be recommended for women who have osteoporosis and have risk factors for developing breast cancer. However, it may increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis and hot flushes.
In the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, hormone replacement therapy (containing estrogens and progestogens) is used. It consists in taking postmenopausal women’s preparations containing both estrogens that protect the bone and progestogens that will inhibit the negative effect of estrogens on the endometrium. This therapy reduces the risk of fractures in women, but at the same time increases the risk of venous thromboembolism and cancer of the breast and endometrium, which is why it is not recommended to use it in the treatment of osteoporosis or its prophylaxis.